Inshore and shelf waters. Congregate inshore to spawn during spring and summer. Juveniles and sub-adults enter estuaries and coastal lagoons. Both adults and juveniles are migratory moving along shore or offshore-onshore in response to temperature change. Feed on fishes and swimming crustaceans.
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Gibraltar and Congo, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Migrated to the Red Sea via the Suez Canal.