Epipelagic, neritic and schooling species that may enter estuaries. Adults prey on small schooling fishes, invertebrates like squid and shrimps and can swallow relatively large prey. Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked, canned and froze. Able to adapt to different temperatures 12° to 27°C and salinities.
Eastern Atlantic: Oslo, Norway to Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Florida, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico; then from Colombia, Venezuela, and south of the Amazon River to northern Argentina; apparently absent from most of the Caribbean Sea.