Species’ vulnerability not assesed
Littoral species. Form schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawn in batches in the open sea or near the coast. Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Also utilized dried or salted and smoked; can be pan-fried, boiled and microwaved.
Northeast Atlantic: Iceland and North Sea, southward to Bay de Gorée, Senegal. Western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.
Credits: Fishbase, Sealifebase, Aquamaps