Said to be the most abundant living shark, the spiny dogfish is a slow, inactive swimmer and forms massive feeding aggregations of thousands of individuals. Tending to be same-sex and same-size shoals, they prey on shoals of bony fish, as well as octopuses, smaller sharks, squid, crabs and shark egg cases. They are highly migratory, moving towards the equatorial side of their range during winter. Usually near the bottom. Often found in enclosed bays. The only species of horned sharks that can inflict toxins with its tail. Utilized for human consumption, liver oil, vitamins, sand paper, leather, fertilizer, etc. Eaten fried, broiled, and baked.
Boreal and temperate cosmopolitan species with principal populations found in the east and west North Atlantic, the eastern South Pacific, the South Atlantic off South America, the Cape coast of South Africa, the southern coasts of Australia and New Zealand, and in the east and west North Pacific. Western Atlantic: Greenland to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Murmansk Coast (Russia) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea